334 不定式表示目的

 

表示目的时可以使用下列各种方法:

A 单独的不定式:

He went to France to learn French

他去法国学习法语。

They stopped to ask the way

他们停下来问路。

当主要动词之后有一个间接宾语时,不定式可能指这个间接宾语而不是指主语:

He sent Tom to the shop to buy bread

他派汤姆到店里去买面包。(该由汤姆而不该由主语“他”去买面包。)

B in orderso as+不定式

in order+不定式意指主语想要做这一动作,或主语很希望这一动作发生。

so as+不定式仅指主语很希望某一动作发生。因此in order +不定式比so as+不定式更为普遍。

in orderso as也常用于以下情况:

1 与否定不定式连用,表示否定性的目的:

He left his gun outside in orderso as not to frighten us

为了不使我们受到惊吓,他把枪放在了外面。

2 to beto have连用:

She left work early in order/so as to be at home when he arrived

为了在家等他到达,她提前下了班。

She gave up work in order/so as to have more time with the children

为了能有更多的时间和孩子们相处,她放弃了工作。

3 表示不是近期能实现的目的:

He is studying mathematics in orderso as to qualify for a better job

他学习数学是为了能有资格做更好的工作。

She learnt typing in order to help her husband with his work

她学习打字是为了帮助她丈夫工作。

4 有时在较长的句子中,用于强调不定式表示目的:

He was accused of misrepresenting the facts in orderso as to make the scheme seem feasible

人们指责他为了使计划显得可行而没有如实地把真相说出来。

He took much more trouble over the figures than he usually did in orderso as to show his new boss what a careful worker he was

为了向新老板显示他是工作非常细心的人,他在这些数字上费了比往常更多的力气。

(但是in orderso as并非必要,有时是可省略的。)

表示目的的不定式位于主要动词之前时,in orderso as可位于句首:

In orderSo as to show his boss what a careful worker he washe took ex tra trouble over the figures

为了向新老板显示他是个工作非常细心的人,他在这些数字上费了比平常更多的力气。(但这里的in orderso as也可以省略。)

5 句中有一个间接宾语而要想让不定式毫不含混地指主语时,可用so asin order

He sent his sons to a boarding school in orderso as to have some peace

为了图清静,他把他的儿子们送进了寄宿学校。(这里是指他要清静,而不是他的儿子们。)

比较:

He sent his sons to a boarding school to learn to live in a community

为了让儿子们学会在集体中生活,他把儿子们送进了寄宿学校。(是让他的儿子们学会在集体中生活,而不是他。)

但是in orderso as的这种用法不是很普遍,更常说:

He sent his sons to a boarding school because he wanted to have some peace

他把儿子们送进寄宿学校,因为他想清静点儿。

C in order(不包括so as)可用于强调不定式所表示的是主语脑子里真正想要达到的目的:

He bought diamonds when he was in Amsterdam

That wasnt surprisingHe went to Amsterdam in order to buy dia monds

―他在阿姆斯特丹时竟买了一些钻石!

―这并不奇怪,他就是为了买钻石才去阿姆斯特丹的。(不是为了其他目的。)

另外也可用重读第一个动词而省略in order的方法来表示同样的意思:

Hewent to Amsterdam to buy diamonds

他去阿姆斯特丹就是为了买钻石。

D 不定式+名词+介词:

I want a case to keep my records in

我想要一个盒子来保存我的唱片。

I need a corkscrew to open this bottle with

我需要一个螺丝刀来打开瓶塞。

注意:这里谈论的是特指的目的。

关于泛指的目的可用for+动名词结构来表示:

This is a case for keeping records in

这是用来保存唱片的盒子。

A corkscrew is a tool for opening bottles

螺丝刀是用来开启瓶塞的工具。