aux v (neg 否定式 do not, contracted form 缩约式 don't/ dEUnt; dont/; 3rd pers sing pres t does/ dEz; dEz; strong form 强读式 dQz; dQz/, neg 否定式 does not, contracted form 缩约式 doesn't/ 5dQznt; `dQznt/; pt did/ dId; dId/, neg 否定式 did not, contracted form 缩约式 didn't/ 5dIdnt; `dIdnt/; pp done/ dQn; dQn/)
1 (a) (used in front of a full v to form negative sentences and questions 用于实动词之前以构成否定句及疑问句)
*I don't like fish. 我不喜欢鱼.
* They didn't go to Paris. 他们没去巴黎.
* Don't forget to write. 别忘了写信.
* Does she speak French? 她会说法语吗?
* Do you believe him? 你相信他吗?
* Did they take you home? 是他们把你送到家的吗?
(b) (used to make tag questions 用以构成附加问句)
*You live in London, don't you? 你住在伦敦, 是吗?
* He married his boss's daughter, didn't he? 他娶了老板的女儿, 是吗?
* She doesn't work here, does she? 她不在此地工作, 是吗?
2 (used when no other aux v is present to emphasize that a verb is positive 用于句中无其他助动词时, 以加强动词的肯定语气)
*He `does look tired. 他确实显得很疲倦.
* She `did write to say thank you. 她的确写信向你道谢了.
* Do shut up! 住口!
* Do say you'll stay for supper! 务必吃完晚饭再走!
3 (used to reverse the order of the subject and v when an adv or adverbial phrase is moved to the front 当副词或副词词组移置到句首时, 用以改变主语和动词的语序)
*Not only does she speak Spanish, (but) she also knows how to type. 她不但会说西班牙语, 还会打字呢.
* (fml 文) So much did they eat that they could not move for the next hour. 他们吃得太多了, 一个小时都动弹不得.
* (fml 文) Rarely did she request help but this was a matter of urgency. 她很少求助于人, 这事却是十分紧急.
4 (used to avoid repetition of a full v 用以代替实动词, 避免重复)
*He drives faster than he did a year ago. 他开车比一年以前快了.
* She works harder than he does. 她工作比他努力.
* `Who won?' `I did.' ｀谁赢了?＇｀我赢了.＇
v (3rd pers sing pres t does / dQz; dQz/, pt did / dId; dId/, pp done / dQn; dQn/)
* CARRYING OUT AN ACTIVITY 进行一项活动
1 [Tn] (used esp with what, anything, nothing and something, to refer to actions which are unspecified or not yet known about 尤与what、anything、nothing、something连用, 指未指定的或未知的行为或动作)
*`What are you doing this evening?' `I'm going to the cinema.' ｀今晚你打算做什么?＇｀我打算去看电影.＇
* `Are you doing anything tomorrow evening?' ｀明晚你有事吗?＇
* We will do what we can to help you. 我们愿意尽力帮助你.
* The company ought to do something about the poor service. 公司应该对服务质量不佳一事采取些措施.
* What does she want to do (ie What career does she want) when she leaves school? 她中学毕业以後想做什么?
* There's nothing to do in this place, ie no means of passing one's leisure time enjoyably. 这个地方没有好玩儿的（无法消磨空闲时间）.
* He does nothing but complain/All he does is complain. 他只会发牢骚.
* `It's so unfair that she's lost her job. ' `I know, but there's nothing we can do about it (ie We can't change the situation.)' ｀她丢了工作, 真使人为她抱不平.＇｀我知道, 但我们又有什么办法呢.＇
* `What can I do for you?' `I'd like a pound of apples, please.' ｀您想买些什么呢?＇｀请给我来一磅苹果.＇
2 [I] act; behave 做; 行动; 表现
*Do as you wish/please. 你愿意怎么干就怎么干吧.
* Do as I do. 照我做的去做吧.
* Why can't you do as you're told (ie be obedient) ? 你怎么不听话呀?
3 [Tn] work at, or carry out, (an activity or a task) 做; 进行（某项活动或工作）
*do a university degree 攻读大学学位
* do research into French history 研究法国历史
* He still has to do his military service. 他仍须服兵役.
* I have a number of important things to do today. 今天我有许多重要事情要做.
* She does aerobics once a week. 她每周进行一次健美操.
4 [Tn] (used esp with the + n or my, his, etc + n to refer to everyday tasks such as cleaning, washing, arranging, mending, etc 尤与the+名词或my、his等+名词连用, 指日常事务, 如打扫卫生、洗洗刷刷、整理家务、修修补补等)
*do (ie brush) one's teeth 刷牙
* do (ie wash up) the dishes 洗碗碟
* do (ie polish) the silver 擦光银器
* do the flowers, ie arrange them in vases 插花
* I like the way you've done (ie styled) your hair. 我喜欢你梳的发式.
* We'll have to get someone to do (ie mend) the roof. 我们得找人来修理房顶.
5 [Tn] (used with the, my, some, much, etc + the -ing form of a v to refer to a wide range of actions 与the、my、some、much等+动词的the -ing形式连用, 指各种各样的行为或动作)
*do the ironing, cooking, washing, etc 熨烫衣服、烹调食物、洗洗刷刷
* We usually do our shopping at the weekend. 我们通常利用周末采购物品.
* You do the painting and I'll do the papering. 你上油漆, 我贴壁纸.
* She did a lot of acting (ie acted in a lot of plays) when she was at university. 她上大学时演过许多剧.
* He does some writing (eg writes poems, novels, essays, etc) in his spare time. 他在业余时间写一些东西（如写诗、小说、散文等）.
* STUDYING OR SOLVING 学习或解决问题
6 [Tn] learn or study (sth) 学习或研究（某事物）
*Do you do science at school? 你在学校里学自然科学吗?
* do accountancy, engineering, law, etc, eg as a professional training 学会计、工程、法律等
* She did economics at Sheffield University. 她曾在谢菲尔德大学攻读经济学.
* Have you done any (ie studied any works by) Shakespeare? 你研究过莎士比亚的作品吗?
7 [Tn] find the answer to (sth); solve 解答（某事物）; 解决
*I can't do this sum. 我不会做这道算术题.
* I could never do simultaneous equations. 我从来不会算联立方程式.
* Can you do crosswords? 你会填纵横字谜吗?
* MAKING OR PRODUCING 做出或制作
8 [Tn, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (for sb) produce sth; make sth 做出某事物; 制作某事物
*do a drawing, painting, sketch, etc 作图样、绘画、素描
* She did five copies of the agenda. 她将议程表复制了五份.
* Does this pub do (ie provide) lunches? 这家酒馆供应午餐吗?
* Who's doing (ie organizing and preparing) the food at the wedding reception? 谁包办婚宴的酒席?
* I'll do a translation for you/do you a translation. 我来为你翻译.
9 [Tn] deal with or attend to (sb/sth) 处理, 照料（某人的事[某事物]）
*The barber said he'd do me (ie cut my hair) next. 理发师说下一个给我理.
10 [Tn] put on or produce (a play, an opera, etc) 演出或编排（戏剧、歌剧等）
*The Dramatic Society are doing `Hamlet next year. 戏剧社准备明年演出《哈姆雷特》.
11 [Tn] play the part of (sb); imitate (sb) 扮演（某人）的角色; 模仿（某人）
*I thought he did Hamlet superbly. 我觉得他扮演哈姆雷特一角很出色.
* She does Mrs. Thatcher rather well. 她学撒切尔夫人的样子倒挺像哩.
12 [I, Tn, Tg] (used in the perfect tense or the passive 用于完成时态或被动语态) finish (sth); complete 结束（某事物）; 完成
*(infml 口) Have you done (ie finished what you were doing) ? 你做完了吗?
* I've done talking it's time to act. 我话已说完--该采取行动了.
* The work won't take too long to do. 这工作不需要很长时间就能完成.
* Did you get your article done in time? 你的论文按时写完了吗?
* COMPLETING AN ACTIVITY OR A JOURNEY 完成一项活动或走完一段路程
(a) travel over (a distance) 走完（一段路程）
*How many miles did you do during your tour? 你旅行了多少英里?
* My car does
40 miles to the gallon, ie uses one gallon of petrol to travel
40 miles. 我的汽车每耗一加仑油可行驶40英里.
(b) complete (a journey) 完成（旅行）
*We did the journey (from London to Oxford) in an hour. 我们用一小时走完了（从伦敦到牛津的）旅程.
(c) travel at or reach (a speed) 以（某一速度）行进; 达到（某一速度）
*The car was doing
90 miles an hour. 汽车以每小时90英里的速度行驶.
14 [Tn] (infml 口) visit (a place) as a sightseer; see the sights of 游览（某地）; 观光
*We did Tokyo in three days. 我们在东京游览了三天.
15 [Tn] spend (a period of time) 度过（一段时间）
*She did a year at university, but decided to give up the course. 她在大学里读过一年书, 但後来决定放弃学业.
* (infml 口) He did six months (in prison) for burglary. 他因盗窃罪（在监狱）服刑六个月.
* OTHER MEANINGS 其他意义
16 [I, Ipr, Tn] ~ (for sb/sth); ~ (as sth) be sufficient or satisfactory for (sb/sth) 足够或能满足（某人/某事物的需要）
*`Can you lend me some money?' `Certainly will
10 do?' ｀你能借给我一点钱吗?＇｀当然可以--10英镑够了吗?＇
* Will next Friday do for our meeting? 我们的会议下星期五开行吗?
* These shoes won't do (ie are not strong enough) for climbing. 这些鞋不适合于登山（不够结实）.
* This log will do fine as a table for our picnic. 这块大圆木很可以用作我们野餐的餐桌.
* This room will do (me) nicely, thank you, ie It has all the comforts I need. 这个房间很适合我的需要, 谢谢你.
17 [I] (used with advs, or in questions after how 与副词连用, 或在疑问句中用于how之後) progress; perform 进展; 表现
*She's doing very well at school, ie Her work is good. 她在学校里功课很好.
* How is the business doing? 生意如何?
* Both mother and baby are doing well, ie after the birth of the baby. 母子均平安.
* Everything in the garden is doing (ie growing) splendidly. 花园里的一切植物都长得好极了.
* She did well out of (ie profited from) the deal. 她在这笔交易中赚了许多钱.
18 [Tn] cook (sth) 烹制（某物）
*Shall I do the casserole in the oven? 我用烤箱做焙盘炖菜好吗?
* How would you like your steak done? 你要的牛排要几成熟?
19 (a) [Tn esp passive 尤用于被动语态] (infml 口) cheat or swindle (sb) 欺骗或诈骗（某人）
*This table isn't a genuine antique; I'm afraid you've been done! ie you have paid a lot of money for an object of little value. 这张桌子并不是真正的古物, 看来你上当了.
(b) [Tn] (sl 俚) rob or burgle (sth) 抢劫, 盗窃（某物）
*The gang did a warehouse and a supermarket. 那帮匪徒抢劫了一个仓库和一家超级市场.
20 (sl 俚)
(a) [Tn] hurt or hit (sb) 伤害, 打击（某人）
*Say that again and I'll do you! 你要再说一次我就揍你!
(b) [esp passive 尤用于被动语态
*Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (for sth) arrest or convict sb (for a crime) 逮捕某人; 宣判某人有罪
*He got done for speeding. 他因超速行车而被抓住.
21 (idm 习语) ,do as you would be `done by (saying 谚) one should treat others as one would like to be treated 你希望别人怎样待你, 你就应该怎样待别人; 己所不欲, 勿施于人. be/have to do with sb/sth be connected with or related to sb/sth 与某人[某事物]有联系或有关系
*`What do you want to see me about?' `It's to do with that letter you sent me.' ｀你想见我有什么事吗?＇｀这事跟你写给我的那封信有关.＇ have (got) something, nothing, a lot, etc to do with sb/sth be connected or concerned to a specified extent with sb/sth 与某人[某事物]在所述程度上有联系或有关系
*Her job has something to do with computers. 她的工作与计算机有些关系.
* Hard work has a lot to do with (ie has contributed greatly towards) her success. 她获得的成功是和她的努力分不开的.
* `How much do you earn?' `What's it got to do with you?' ｀你挣多少钱?＇｀这跟你有什么关系?＇
* We don't have very much to do with our neighbours, ie don't meet them socially. 我们与邻居没什么往来. ,how do you `do? (used as a formal greeting when one meets sb for the first time 用作初次见面时的正式问候语). it/that will never/won't `do (used to indicate that a state of affairs is unsatisfactory and should be changed or improved 用以表示情况或事情不能令人满意应加以改变或改善)
*This is the third time you've been late for work this week; it simply won't do, I'm afraid. 这是你在本周里第三次上班迟到了, 这可不行啊. ,nothing `doing (sl 俚) (used to refuse a request 用以拒绝一项请求)
*`Could you lend me 10?' `Nothing doing!' ｀你借给我10英镑行吗?＇｀不行!＇ that `does it (infml 口) (used to show that one will not tolerate sth any longer 用以表示不能再容忍某事物)
*That does it! I've had enough of your sarcasm. I'm leaving. 够了! 你那些挖苦人的话我已经受不了啦. 我走! that's `done it (infml 口) (used to express dismay, anger, etc that a misfortune, an accident or a mistake has spoiled or ruined sth 当某种灾祸、事故或差错弄糟或毁坏某事物时, 用以表示惊慌、气愤等)
*That's done it. We've run out of petrol. We'll never be in time for the train now. 糟了. 我们的汽油用完了. 怎么也赶不上火车了. that will `do (used esp to order sb to stop doing or saying sth 尤用以制止某人做或说某事物)
*That'll do, you two; you're getting far too noisy. 行啦, 你们两个人简直吵死了. (For other idioms containing do, see entries for ns, adjs, etc 与do搭配的其他习语见有关名词、形容词等的词条, 如 do a bunk => bunk2; easier said than done => easy. )
22 (phr v) do away with sth (infml 口) get rid of sth; abolish sth 摆脱某事物; 废除某事物
*She thinks it's time we did away with the monarchy. 她认为该是废除君主制的时候了.
* The death penalty has been done away with in many European countries. 许多欧洲国家已废除了死刑. do away with oneself/sb (infml 口) kill oneself/sb 自杀[杀死某人]
*She tried to do away with herself. 她企图自杀.
n (pl dos or do's / du:z; duz/)
1 (Brit infml 口) party 聚会
*I hear the Newtons are having a big do tonight. 听说牛顿家里今晚举行盛大的宴会.
2 (Brit sl 俚) dishonest trick; swindle 花招; 骗局
*If you ask me, the whole thing's a do. 依我说, 这事完全是个骗局. 3(idm 习语) do's and don'ts/ 9du:zEn5dEUnts; 9duzEn`donts/ rules 规则; 准则
*If you want to lose weight, here are some do's and don'ts. 想要减轻体重, 这是一些注意事项. fair do/dos/do's => fair1.
abbr 缩写 = (also symb 符号为") ditto.