动词过去式:ground 过去分词:ground 现在分词:grinding 第三人称单数:grinds 副词:grindingly
v (pt, pp ground / graUnd; ^raJnd/)1 (a) [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sth (down/up) (to/into sth) crush sth to very small pieces or to powder between millstones, the teeth, etc or using an electrical or a mechanical apparatus 磨碎; 磨成粉状; 碾碎; 咬碎; 嚼碎
*The elephant grinds its food with/between its powerful molars. 象用其强有力的臼齿嚼碎食物.
* grind coffee beans 磨咖啡豆
* grind corn (down/up) into flour 将谷磨成粉
* grind sth to dust, to (a fine) powder, etc 将某物磨成末、（细）粉等.
(b) [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (down) (to/into sth) be able to be crushed finely 可磨细
*The corn grinds easily. 谷物容易磨成粉.
* It won't grind down any finer than this. 不能磨得比这个再细了.
(c) [Tn] (US) mince (meat) 绞碎（肉）
*ground beef 绞碎的牛肉.
2 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (from sth) produce sth by crushing 经磨碎而制成某物
*grind flour from corn 将谷物磨成面粉.
3 [esp passive 尤用于被动语态
*Tn, Tn.p] ~ sb (down) (fig 比喻) treat sb extremely harshly; oppress sb 虐待某人; 压迫某人
*people ground (down) by poverty, taxation, tyranny, etc 受贫困、苛税、暴政等折磨的人民
* tyrants who grind down the poor 压榨穷人的暴君.
4 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (on/with sth) polish or sharpen sth by rubbing it on or with a rough hard surface 磨光某物; 将某物磨锋利; 磨快
*grind a knife, lens, etc on a stone, etc 在石头等上磨刀、镜片等.
5 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sth (together); ~ sth in/into sth press or rub sth firmly and often noisily 挤压或磨擦某物（常发出声音）
*He ground his teeth (together) in frustration. 他因失败而把牙咬得咯咯响.
* dirt that had become ground into the surface 落在物体表面的尘土
* (fig 比喻) grind one's heel into the fragments, ie crush them very hard 用脚跟把破片碾碎.
6 [I, Ip] ~ (away) make a harsh noise (as if) from friction 发出（似）摩擦之声; 发出刺耳声
*The old engine ground and shuddered. 那台陈旧的发动机抖动着发出摩擦的声音.
7 [Tn] work (sth) by turning a handle （转动摇柄）开动（某物）
*grind a coffee-mill, barrel-organ 摇咖啡磨、筒风琴.
8 [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (away) (at sth) (infml 口) work or study hard and long 刻苦工作或学习; 苦干; 用功
*grind away at one's studies 刻苦学习.
9 (idm 习语) grind the faces of the `poor (into the `dust) (rhet 修辞) deliberately cause poor people to suffer more than necessary, taking pleasure in doing so 以压迫穷人为乐. grind to a `halt/`standstill
(a) (of a vehicle) stop slowly and noisily （指车辆）伴有噪音缓缓停住.
(b) (fig 比喻) (of a process) gradually stop （指过程）逐渐停止
*The strike brought industry grinding to a halt. 由于罢工生产逐渐停顿下来. have an axe to grind => axe.
10 (phr v) grind on continue for a long time boringly and monotonously 烦人、乏味地继续下去
*The speaker ground on, oblivious of his listeners' boredom. 演说者唠唠叨叨, 没注意到听众的厌烦情绪. grind sth out
(a) produce sth by turning a handle （经转动摇柄）产生某物
*grind out music from a barrel-organ 摇动筒风琴奏出音乐.
(b) (derog 贬) play (music) heavily, tediously or monotonously 沉闷地、单调地或乏味地演奏（乐曲）
*The jukebox ground out an incessant stream of pop music. 自动电唱机没完没了地放送流行乐曲.
(c) (derog 贬) produce (books, stories, etc) with sustained but uninspired effort 无灵感却费力硬写（书、小说等）
*He has been grinding out cheap romantic stories at the rate of one a week. 他一直以每周一篇的速度生拼硬凑廉价的浪漫小说.
1 act of grinding 磨; 碾.
2 size of ground particles 磨细的程度
*a coarse grind 粗磨.
3 (infml 口) long, steady, tiring or monotonous effort (physical or mental) 长时间的、令人疲劳厌倦的（体力的或脑力的）劳动; 苦事
*a long uphill grind in a cyclerace 自行车比赛中的一大段上坡路
* Marking examination papers is a real grind. 批改试卷的确是个苦事.
1. He had worked at a mill in the old country, but, finding the wheat business too much of a grind, began selling pots and pans off his back. 在自己国家，他曾在面粉厂干过活，但感觉这种磨面粉的营生真是种折磨人的苦活，就开始背着坛坛罐罐到处兜售。
2. Social and economic progress will grind to a halt and more and more jobs will be eliminated by the negative side of this transformation. 社会和经济上的进步会慢慢停止下来，而且越来越多的工作岗位会因为这种改革的负面作用而消失。