动词过去式:included 过去分词:included 现在分词:including 第三人称单数:includes 形容词:includable
1 [Tn, Tg] have (sb/sth) as part of a whole 包括, 包含（某人[某事物]）
*The conference delegates included representatives from abroad. 大会代表中有来自海外的代表.
* The tour included a visit to the Science Museum. 旅游项目中包括参观科学博物馆.
* Does the price include VAT? 这价钱是否已包括增值税在内?
* Your duties include checking the post and distributing it. 你的职责是检查和发送邮件.
2 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb/sth (in/among sth) make sb/sth part of a larger group or set 使（某人[某事物]）成为整体中的一部分
*include an article (in a newspaper) （在报纸上）登一篇文章
* We all went, me/myself included, ie I was among those who went. 大家都去了, 我也在内.
* Detailed instructions are included in the booklet. 小册子中有详细说明.
1400-1500; Language: Latin;Origin:
includere, from claudere 'to close'
] [not in progressive]
if one thing includes another, the second thing is part of the first Does the price include postage? His job includes looking after under-21 teams. The curriculum includes courses in computing.
to make someone or something part of a larger group or set
≠ exclude The team is stronger now they've included Roscoe.include sth in/on sth Service is included in the bill. Would you include a Walkman on your list of essentials?
WORD CHOICE: include, consist of, comprise, be composed of, be made up of
to mention only some
of the things that something has as its parts : The price includes lunch.
If you want to mention all
the parts that something has in it, use consist of, comprise, be composed of,
or be made up of
: The Romance family of languages consists of French, Spanish, Italian, and several other languages.
| The house comprises two bedrooms, a kitchen and a living room.
|The jury was composed of nine whites, one Hispanic, and two Asian Americans.
| an organization made up of 600,000 small business owners!!
Do not say that something 'is consisted of' certain things or that it 'consists' them. Say it consists of
Do not say that something 'comprises of' certain things, even though you might hear English speakers say this. Most careful users consider this to be incorrect so you should avoid using it. !!
Do not say that something 'is composed by' or 'is composed with' certain things. Say it is composed of
1. Earthquake survival supplies include a radio receiver, a torch, extra batteries, first-aid supplies, a spade, a tent, some rope, and warm clothing. 地震救生储备还包括无线电接收器、手电、备用电池、急救用品、铁锹、帐篷、绳子和保暖衣物。
2. Because they destroy so many insects, and insects include some of the greatest enemies of the human race. 因为它们能消灭那么多的昆虫，其中包括一些人类的大敌。
3. We can even, if we want, interpret the term "family" to include people who are not related to us either by blood or marriage — a set of close friends who support one another, like the women I mentioned above. 愿意的话我们甚至可以把 "家庭"看作包括一些与我们既无血缘关系、又无婚姻关系的人 --一些互相扶持的亲密朋友，就像前面所提到的那些女士。
4. The daily report should include the atmospheric conditions. 每天的报告应包括大气的情况。
5. The makers of the nerve poison include the mambas and the cobras and their venom is called neurotoxic. 产生神经毒液的蛇名叫马姆伯斯的非洲大毒蛇和眼睛蛇, 它们的毒液称为神经毒素.
6. The makers of the nerve poison include the mambas and the cobras 产生神经毒液的蛇有一种非洲树眼镜蛇和眼镜蛇，
7. The basic features include a crest (the highest point of the wave), 它们的基本特征包括浪峰（波浪的最高点）、
8. The questions include: "Have you ever been a controlled substance (drug) salesman, or a sex slave or pimp?" 其问题包括：你做过受管制药物（毒品）的推销员吗？
9. They include: physical appearance, energy, rate of speech, pitch and tone of voice, gestures, expression through the eyes, and the ability to hold the interest of others. 这些优点包括：体貌、活力、语速、语音语调、手势、眼神，以及使他人对你保持兴趣的能力。
10. These include the swift Gulf Stream current, the unexplored submerged valleys of the Atlantic and the often violent weather within the mystery zone. 这其中包括墨西哥湾的湍急海流，尚未探测的大西洋海沟，以及该神秘区域经常变幻莫测的恶劣天气。