1 (a) (used with aux vs and modal vs to form the negative; often contracted to -n't / nt; nt/ in speech and informal writing 与助动词和情态动词连用 构成否定式; 在口语或语体文中常略作-n't)
*She did not see him. 她没见他.
* You may not be chosen. 可能挑不上你.
* They aren't here. 他们没在这儿.
* I mustn't forget. 我决不能忘记.
* Wouldn't you like to go home? 你不愿意回家吗?
(b) (used with non-finite vs to formthe negative 与非限定动词连用构成否定式)
*He warned me not to be late. 他提醒我别迟到.
* The difficulty was in not laughing out loud. 难就难在没笑出声来.
2 (a) (used after believe, expect, hope, trust, etc instead of a clause beginning with that and containing a negative v 用于believe、expect、hope、trust等动词之後, 代替that引导的否定从句)
*`Will it rain?' `I hope not (ie that it will not rain).' ｀这种天会下雨吗?＇｀我希望别下雨.＇
* `Does he know?' `I believe not.' ｀他知道吗?＇｀我认为他不知道.＇
* `Can I come in?' `I'm afraid not.' ｀我可以进来吗?＇｀很抱歉, 不可以.＇
(b) (used to indicate the negative alternative after questions with Are you, Can he, Shall we, etc 用于含有Are you、Can he、Shall we等的疑问句之後, 构成选择疑问句)
*Is she ready or not? 她准备好了没有?
* Can you mend it or not? 你能不能修理它?
* I don't know if/whether he's telling the truth or not. 我不知道他说的是否是实话.
3 (a) (used to reply in the negative to part or all of a question 用于对疑问句做部分的或全部的否定回答)
*`Are you hungry?' `Not hungry, just very tired.' ｀你饿吗?＇｀不饿, 只是很累.＇
* `Would you like some more?' `Not for me, thank you.' ｀你再要点儿吗?＇｀别给我了, 谢谢.＇
* `Do you go in the sea every day?' `Not in the winter.' ｀你每天都下海吗?＇｀冬天不下海.＇
(b) (used to deny the significance of the following word or phrase 用以否定紧跟其後的词或短语的意义)
*It was not greed but ambition that drove him to crime. 驱使他犯罪的并非贪婪而是野心.
* Not all the students have read the book. 不是所有的学生都读过那本书.
* `Who will do the washing-up?' `Not me.' ｀谁管刷锅洗碗?＇｀我不管.＇
(c) (used to show that the opposite of the following word or phrase is intended 用以表示与紧跟其後的词或短语相反的意思)
*a town that is not a million miles from here, ie very close 距此地并非十万八千里的一座城市（很近）
* She argued, and not without reason (ie reasonably), that no one could afford to pay. 她辩称没人能付得起钱, 这也不无道理.
* We plan to meet again in the not too distant future, ie quite soon. 我们打算不久以後再次见面.
4 (idm 习语) not only...(but) also (used to emphasize the addition of sb/sth 用以强调递进关系的某人[某事物])
*Not only the grandparents were there but also the aunts, uncles and cousins. 不光是祖父母, 连姑母、叔父及其子女也在那里.
* He not only writes his own plays, he also acts in them. 他不仅是自编剧本, 还饰演其中的角色. `not that though one is not suggesting that 并不是说
*She hasn't written to me yet not that she ever said she would. 她还没给我来信--倒不是她说过要给我写信.
used to make a word, statement, or question negative Most of the stores do not open until 10am. She's not a very nice person. You were wrong not to inform the police. 'Can we go to the park?' 'No, not today, dear.'not at all/not ... at all
(=used to emphasize what you are saying) The changes were not at all surprising. I do not like his attitude at all.
used in order to make a word or expression have the opposite meaning Edinburgh isn't far now. The food is not very good there.not a lot/much/many etc
(=only a few, only a little etc) Not much is known about the disease. Not many people have read the report. Most of the hotels are not that cheap (=they are fairly expensive) .
used instead of a whole phrase, to mean the opposite of what has been mentioned before it No one knows if the story is true or not . I hope to see you tomorrow, but if not , leave me a message. 'Is Mark still sick?' 'I hope not .'
in addition to being or doing somethingnot only ... (but) also ... Shakespeare was not only a writer but also an actor.not only do/will/can etc Not only do the nurses want a pay increase, they want reduced hours as well.not a/not one
not any person or thing Not one of the students knew the answer. There wasn't a cloud in the sky. Not a single person said thank you.not that ...
used before a sentence or phrase to mean the opposite of what follows it, and to make the previous sentence seem less important Sarah has a new boyfriend - not that I care (=I do not care) . Janice had lost some weight, not that it mattered (=it did not matter) .not at allspoken especially BrE
used to be polite when someone has thanked you or asked you to do something 'Would you mind helping me with my suitcase?' 'Not at all.'- not!spoken
used, especially by young people, to say that you really mean the opposite of what you have just said I really enjoy spending my day working here - not!
(5), not to sayatsay1
Do not use another negative word (no, nothing, nobody, never etc) with not.
Use any, anything, anybody, ever
etc: I haven't got any (NOT haven't got no) money.
|I didn't know anybody (NOT didn't know nobody).