1 ~ (for sth)
(a) punishment for breaking a law, rule or contract 刑罚; 处罚; 惩罚
*It is part of the contract that there is a penalty for late delivery. 合同中有延迟交货的惩罚规定.
(b) thing imposed as a punishment, eg imprisonment or a fine施加的惩罚（如监禁、罚款）
*the `death penalty 死刑
* It is an offence to travel without a valid ticket penalty 100. 无有效票证乘搭交通工具--违章罚款100英镑.
* The maximum penalty for this crime is
10 years' imprisonment. 这种罪行的最高刑罚是10年监禁.
2 disadvantage, suffering or inconvenience caused by an action or a circumstance （行为或处境造成的）不利、苦恼或不便
*One of the penalties of fame is loss of privacy. 成名的弊端之一是失去了私人活动自由.
3 (a) (in sports and games) disadvantage imposed on a player or team as a punishment for breaking a rule, esp (in football) a free shot at goal by the opposing team （运动和竞赛等的）处罚（尤指足球中罚任意球）
*The referee awarded a penalty to the home team. 裁判判给主队罚对方任意球.
(b) (in football) goal scored with a penalty kick （足球）罚球得分.
4 (idm 习语) on/under pain/penalty of sth => pain. pay the penalty => pay2.
1500-1600; Language: Medieval Latin;Origin:
poenalitas, from Latin
a punishment for breaking a law, rule, or legal agreement No littering. Penalty $500. Withdrawing the money early will result in a 10% penalty.penalty for The penalty for a first offense is a fine.severe/stiff/heavy penalty Drug dealers face severe penalties. If he is convicted, he could receive the death penalty (=be killed as a punishment) .
something bad that happens to you because of something you have done or because of the situation you are inpenalty of (doing) sth One of the penalties of being famous is the loss of privacy. If you don't do the job right, you will pay the penalty .
a disadvantage in sports given to a player or team for breaking a rule Woodson received a penalty.
a chance to kick the ball or hit the puck
into the goal
in a game of football, rugby
, or ice hockey
, given because the other team has broken a rule Townsend kicked a penalty (=in a rugby game) in the last minute. Leeds were awarded a penalty.
1. The penalty for spitting is US$10. 随地吐痰罚款十美金。
2. Some scientists speculate the reduction in mental function often attributed to getting old may really be a penalty of neglecting to stay physically active, in addition to related factors such as medicines and poor diet. 一些科学家推测，除了药物作用和饮食不当等相关因素外，常常归咎于衰老的大脑功能下降实际可能是对不注意保持体育运动的一种惩罚。