v (-nn-; pt ran / rn; rAn/, pp run)
1 [I, Ipr, Ip] move at a speed faster than a walk, never having both or all the feet on the ground at the same time 跑; 奔跑
*He cannot run because he has a weak heart. 他有心脏病, 不能跑.
* Can you run fast? 你跑得快吗?
* They turned and ran (ie in order to escape) when they saw he had a gun. 他们看见他有枪, 转身就跑.
* She ran/came running to meet us. 她跑着来接我们.
* I had to run to catch the bus. 我得赶快跑, 好赶上公共汽车.
* She ran out (of the house) to see what was happening. 她（从房子里）跑出去, 看看出了什么事.
* The boys ran off as soon as we appeared. 我们一来, 孩子就都跑了.
* He ran home in tears to his mother. 他流着泪跑回家去找妈妈. =>Usage 见所附用法.
2 (a) [Tn] cover (the specified distance) by running 跑（一段距离）
*Who was the first man to run a mile in under four minutes? 谁第一个在四分钟以内跑完了一英里?
(b) [I, Tn] (in cricket) score (a run or runs) by running between the wickets （板球）击球跑动得（分）
*run a quick single 击球後快跑得到1分
* The batsmen ran two. 击球员得了两分.
3 (a) [I] practise running as a sport 跑步锻炼; 跑步运动
*You're very unfit; you ought to take up running. 你身体很弱, 应该练练跑步.
* She used to run when she was at college. 她上大学时经常练跑步.
(b) [I, Ipr, Tn] ~ (in sth) take part or compete in (a running race) （参加）赛跑
*Aouita will be running (in the
1500 metres) tonight. 奥依塔今晚参加（1500米）赛跑.
* run the mile 参加一英里赛跑
* Cram ran a fine race to take the gold medal. 克拉姆在赛跑中成绩突出夺得金牌.
(c) [Tn] cause (a horse or dog) to take part in a race 使（马或狗）参加赛跑
*run two horses in the Derby 让两匹马参加德比马赛.
(d) [Tn esp passive 尤用于被动语态] cause (a race) to take place 举行（赛跑）
*The Grand National will be run in spite of the bad weather. 尽管天气不好, 一年一度的全国大马赛仍将举行.
4 [Ipr, Ip] go quickly or hurry to the specified place or in the specified direction 迅速地或急迫地前往某处
*run across to a neighbour's house to borrow some sugar 急忙到邻居家去借些糖
* I've been running around (town) all morning looking for Christmas presents. 我（在城里）跑了一上午寻购圣诞节礼物.
5 [Ipr] move forward smoothly or easily, esp on wheels 平稳地或不很费力地向前移动（尤指用轮）
*Trains run on rails. 火车在轨道上行驶.
* Sledges run well over frozen snow. 雪橇在冻硬了的雪上顺利滑行.
6 [Ipr, Ip] (of a ship or its crew) sail or steer in the specified direction （指船）行驶; （指船员）驾船航行
*We ran into port for supplies. 我们驶进港口装补给品.
* The ship ran aground. 船搁浅了.
7 (a) [I, Ipr] (of buses, ferries, trains, etc) travel to and fro on a particular route （指公共汽车、渡船、火车等）（沿规定路线）往来行驶
*Buses to Oxford run every half hour. 去牛津的公共汽车每半小时开一班.
* The trains don't run on Christmas Day. 圣诞节火车停驶.
* There are frequent trains running between London and Brighton. 伦敦与布莱顿之间火车班次很多.
(b) [Tn] cause (buses, trains, etc) to be in service 使（公共汽车、火车等）运营
*London Transport run extra trains during the rush-hour. 伦敦运输公司在交通高峰时 间增开加班列车.
8 [Ipr, Tn.pr, Tn.p] drive (sb) to a place in a car 开车至某处; 开车送（某人）
*It's a lovely sunny day; why don't we run down to the coast? 天气多好哇, 咱们何不开车到海边玩玩?
* Can I run you (ie give you a lift) to the station? 我开车送你去车站好吗?
9 (a) [Ipr] move, esp quickly, in the specified direction 向某方向移动（尤指快速）
*The lorry ran down the hill out of control. 卡车失去控制直往山下冲去.
* The car ran off the road into a ditch. 汽车驶离道路跌进沟中.
* The ball ran (ie rolled) to the boundary. 球向着边线滚去.
* Her eyes ran critically over her friend's new dress. 她以挑剔的眼光打量朋友的新连衣裙.
* A shiver ran down her spine. 她浑身哆嗦了一下.
(b) [Tn.pr] cause (sth) to move in the specified direction 使（某物）向某方向移动
*She ran her fingers nervously through her hair. 她紧张地用手指拢着头发.
* She ran her fingers lightly over the keys of the piano. 她用手指轻轻地弹着钢琴.
* He ran his eyes over the page. 他把这一页看了一遍.
10 [Tn, Tn.pr] bring or take (sth) into a country illegally and secretly; smuggle 非法地秘密运送或携带（某物）进入某国; 走私
*He used to run guns across the border. 他过去经常偷运枪枝过境.
* run contraband goods/liquor into a country 走私违禁物品[偷运私酒]进入某国. =>Usage at smuggle 用法见smuggle.
11 [I] (of salmon) move up a river in large numbers from the sea （指鲑鱼）洄游
*The salmon are running. 鲑鱼正在洄游.
12 [Ipr] (of plants) grow or spread in the specified direction （指植物）蔓生
*Ivy ran over the walls of the cottage. 村舍的墙壁上爬满了常春藤.
13 [Ipr] extend in the specified direction 伸展; 延伸
*A fence runs round the whole field. 有一道篱笆围着这一整块地.
* The road runs parallel to the railway. 这条公路与铁路平行.
* He has a scar running across his left cheek. 他左脸上有一道很长的疤痕.
14 [Ipr] ~ (for...) continue for the specified period of time without stopping 持续; 延续
*The play ran (ie was performed regularly) for six months on Broadway. 这出戏在百老汇连续演了半年.
* Election campaigns in Britain run for three weeks. 英国选举活动持续三周.
15 [Ipr] operate or be valid for the specified period of time （在一定期限内）起作用, 有效
*The lease on my house has only a year to run. 我那房子的租期只有一年了.
16 [I] (of a story, an argument, etc) have the specified wording, content, etc （指叙述、陈述等）有某样言词、内容等
*The story runs that she poisoned her husband/She poisoned her husband, or so the story runs. 据报道说, 她把丈夫毒死了.
* `Ten shot dead by gunmen,' ran the newspaper headline. 报纸标题为｀枪手击毙十人＇.
17 (a) [Ipr] (of a liquid) flow （指液体）流动
*The River Rhine runs into the North Sea. 莱茵河流入北海.
* The tears ran down her cheeks. 她的脸上淌着眼泪.
* Water was running all over the bathroom floor/The bathroom floor was running with water. 洗澡间水流了一地.
(b) [Tn, Tn.pr, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (for sb) cause (a liquid) to flow 使（液体）流动
*She ran hot water into the bowl. 她用碗接点热水.
* run the hot tap 打开热水的水龙头
* Could you run me a hot bath/run a hot bath for me? 你给我放一盆热的洗澡水好吗?
(c) [I] (of a tap, etc) send out a liquid （指水龙头等）流出液体
*Who left the tap running? 谁忘了关水龙头了?
* Your nose is running, ie Mucus is flowing from it. 你流鼻涕了.
* The smoke makes my eyes run. 烟熏得我直流眼泪. =>Usage at drip1 用法见drip1.
(d) [Ipr] ~ with sth (usu in the continuous tenses 通常用于进行时态) be covered with (a flowing liquid) 流满（液体）
*The streets were running with blood after the massacre. 那场大屠杀後街上血流成河.
* His face was running with sweat. 他汗流满面.
18 [I] (of dye or colour in a garment) dissolve and spread （指衣服上的染料或颜色）掉色, 扩散
*I'm afraid the colour ran when I washed your new skirt. 很遗憾, 你那条新裙子我洗的时候掉色了.
19 [I] melt 融化
*It was so hot that the butter ran. 天气太热, 黄油都化了.
* The wax began to run. 蜡开始融化了.
20 [La, I] (of the sea, the tide, a river, etc) rise higher or flow faster （指海水、潮水、河水等）上涨, 流动加快
*The tide was running strong. 潮水涨得很猛.
21 [La] pass into or reach the specified state; become 进入或达到某种状态; 变成
*The water ran cold when I turned the tap on. 我把水龙头打开, 水就凉了.
* The river ran dry (ie stopped flowing) during the drought. 大旱期间这条河都乾了.
* Supplies are running short/low. 供应品短缺.
* I have run short of money. 我缺钱.
22 [Tn] be in charge of (sth); manage 负责（某事物）; 经营; 管理
*run a hotel, a shop, a language school 管理旅馆、商店、语言学校
* He has no idea of how to run a successful business. 他不知道把企业办好的方法.
* Stop trying to run (ie organize) my life for me! 我的生活用不着你来管!
23 [Tn] make (a service, course of study, etc) available to people; organize 开办（服务项目、课程等）; 举办
*The college runs summer courses for foreign learners of English. 这所学院为学习英语的外国人开设了暑期班.
24 [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] (cause sth to) operate or function （使某物）运转, 起作用
*Your new car seems to run very nicely. 你的新汽车开起来还很不错.
* (fig 比喻) Her life has run smoothly up to now. 她的生活到目前仍一帆风顺.
* Could you run the engine for a moment? 你让发动机转一会儿好吗?
* I can run my electric razor off (ie with power from) the mains. 我的电动剃刀可以使用交流电.
25 [Tn] own and use (esp a vehicle) 有并使用（尤指交通工具）
*I can't afford to run a car on my salary. 凭我的薪水我是开不起汽车的.
* A bicycle is cheap to run. 使用自行车是很经济的.
26 [I, Ipr] ~ (for sb/sth); ~ (in sth) (esp US) be a candidate in an election (for a political position); stand (for sth) 竞选（某一政治职位）; 当（某职务的）候选人
*Reagan ran (for the Presidency) a second time in 1980. 里根于1980年再次竞选（总统）.
* How many candidates are running in the Presidential election? 有多少候选人参加总统竞选?
27 [Tn] present or nominate (sb) as a candidate in an election 提出（某人）参加竞选
*How many candidates is the Liberal Party running in the General Election? 自由党在这次大选中提出了多少个候选人?
28 [Tn] (of a newspaper or magazine) print and publish (sth) as an item or a story （指报刊）刊登, 发表
*The `Guardian' is running a series of articles on Third World Economics. 《卫报》发表了论《第三世界的经济》的一系列文章.
29 [I] (esp US) (of a woven or knitted garment) become unwoven or unravelled （指编织的或针织的服装）脱针, 脱线, 抽丝
*Nylon tights sometimes run, ie ladder. 尼龙裤袜有时候抽丝.
30 [La, Ipr] (esp in the continuous tenses 尤用于进行时态) (of an event, a train, etc) happen, arrive, etc at the specified time （指事情等）（在某时候）发生; （指火车等）（在某时刻）到达
*The trains are running an hour late. 火车晚点一个小时.
* Programmes are running a few minutes behind schedule this evening. 今晚的节目演出比预定的时间晚了几分钟.
31 (idm 习语) come running be eager to do what sb wants 渴望做某人想做的事
*If you offer the children rewards for helping they'll all come running. 要是让孩子帮忙做事, 给他们点奖品, 他们就巴不得都来帮忙了. `run for it run in order to escape from sb/sth 逃跑
*Run for it he's got a gun! 快逃吧--他带着枪呢! (For other idioms containing run, see entries for ns, adjs, etc 查阅与run搭配的其他习语, 见有关名词、形容词等的词条, 如 run/take its course => course1; run riot => riot.)
32 (phr v) run across sb/sth meet sb or find sth by chance 偶然遇见某人或发现某事物
*I ran across my old friend Jean in Paris last week. 上周我在巴黎遇见了老朋友琼.
NOTE ON USAGE
*Compare run, trot, jog, gallop, sprint and race. 试比较run、trot、jog、gallop、sprint、race这几个词. When describing movement that is faster than walking, run is the most general verb. 描述比行走快的动作, 最常用的动词是run. People usually run in a race or when they are in a hurry 通常run用于赛跑或有急事的场合
*I was late for the train so I had to run. 我要赶不上火车了, 所以得跑着去. We generally jog for physical exercise, running steadily and not very fast. *jog一般用于健身运动, 跑得稳但不太快. Trot and gallop are mainly used of horses. *trot和gallop主要指马跑. When people trot, they run quite quickly with short steps 若以trot指人, 则意为小步快跑
*The girls spent the afternoon trotting up and down the beach. 姑娘们一下午都在海滩上轻快地跑来跑去. Informally, trot can mean simply to `go' 在口语中, trot可直接地表示go之意
*I'll just trot round to the shops for some bread. 我就到附近商店去买些面包. Gallop is to run fast *gallop指快跑
*He came galloping up the road. 他沿路飞快跑来. Race suggests a need to run very fast, not always in competition *race指有快速跑的必要, 但不一定总是指比赛
*She raced to the window to stop the child jumping out. 她一个箭步跑到窗前, 制止那孩子往外跳. Sprint is to run as fast as possible, usually over a short distance *sprint指尽力快跑, 通常距离较短
*You'll have to sprint if you want to catch the train. 你要想赶上火车, 就得快跑几步.
1 [C] act or period of running on foot 跑; 跑步; 奔跑; 奔跑的一段时间
*go for a run every morning 每天早晨跑步
* Catching sight of her, he broke into a run. 他一看见她, 赶紧就跑.
2 instance or period of travelling by car, train, etc 乘汽车、火车等的旅行; 乘车旅行期间
*take the car out for a run in the country 乘汽车去郊外一游
* Oxford to London is about an hour's run by train. 从牛津到伦敦乘火车大约有一小时行程.
3 [C] route taken by vehicles, ships, etc 车、船等行驶的路线
*The boat operates on the Dover-Calais run. 这艘船运行多佛--加莱航线.
4 [C] series of performances 持续的演出
*The play had a good run/a run of six months. 那出戏演了很久[演了半年].
* It's just finished its West End run, ie in the West End of London. 在伦敦西区的长期演出刚刚结束.
5 [C] period or succession; spell 时期; 一段时间
*We've enjoyed an exceptional run of fine weather recently. 我们这里最近天气好极了.
* a run of bad luck, ie a series of misfortunes 一连串的不幸.
6 [C usu sing 通常作单数] ~ on sth sudden demand for sth by many people 许多人一时对某物的需求
*a run on sterling following its rise in value against the dollar 英镑对美元升值後引起的抢购英镑的热潮
* a run on the bank, ie a sudden withdrawal of deposits by many customers 挤兑.
7 [C] (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) space for domestic animals, fowl, etc （家畜、家禽等的）饲养场
*a `chicken-run 养鸡场
* a `sheep-run, ie an area of pasture for sheep 牧羊场.
8 [C] point scored in cricket or baseball （板球或棒球中所得的）分.
9 [sing] the ~ of sth tendency or trend of sth 趋势; 趋向
40 minutes Spurs scored, against the run of play, ie although they had been playing poorly. 斯珀尔斯队每况愈下, 40分钟後却得了分.
* The run of the cards favoured me, ie I was dealt good cards. 我得到的牌非常好.
* in accordance with the recent run of events, ie the way things have been going recently 按照最近的情况发展.
10 [C] (music 音) series of notes sung or played quickly up or down the scale 急唱; 急奏.
11 [C] track for some purpose 有某种用途的小道
*a `ski-run 滑雪道.
12 [C] = ladder 2.
13 [C] large number of fish in motion 游动的鱼群
*a run of salmon, eg on their way upstream 游动的鲑鱼群（如在溯江洄游途中）.
14 the runs [pl] (sl 俚) diarrhoea 腹泻; 拉肚子.
15 (idm 习语) at a `run running 跑（着）
*He started off at a run but soon tired and slowed to a walk. 他跑步出发, 但很快就累得慢下来成了步行. the common, general, ordinary, etc run (of sth) the average type or class 普通的类型或等级
*the common run of mankind, ie ordinary average people 普通人
* a hotel out of the ordinary run, ie better than average 较好的旅馆. give sb/get/have the run of sth give sb/get/have permission to make full use of sth 允许某人[得到许可/获准]充分使用某物
*gave me the run of his library 允许我自由使用他的书房
* He has the run of the house. 他获准使用那所房子. in the long run => long1. make a bolt/dash/run for it/sth => bolt2. on the `run
(a) fleeing from pursuit or capture 奔逃; 逃跑
*He's on the run from the police. 他正在逃避警方的追缉.
* have/keep the enemy on the run 逼得敌人奔窜.
(b) continuously active and moving about 忙碌; 奔波
*I've been on the run all day and I'm exhausted. 我整天忙个不停, 疲于奔命.
* on the run from one office to another 从一个公司的部门到另一个公司的部门. a (good, etc) run for one's `money
(a) challenging competition or opposition 较量; 竞争; 对抗
*They may win the game, but we'll give them a good run for their money. 他们即使能赢得这场比赛, 我们也不会让他们轻易取胜.
(b) reward, interest, enjoyment, etc, esp in return for effort 报偿、利益、满足等（尤指付出努力後所获得者）
*I feel I've had an excellent run for my money (ie a rewarding career) and now I'm happy to retire. 我对我一生的事业十分满意, 现在退休甚为欣慰.