n.刻度,衡量,比例,数值范围,比例尺,天平,等级 vt.依比例决定,攀登,测量 vi.剥落,生水垢,重,攀登,衡量
形容词:scalelike 动词过去式:scaled 过去分词:scaled 现在分词:scaling 第三人称单数:scales
1 [C] any of the thin overlapping plates of hard material covering the skin of many fish and reptiles 鳞; 鳞片
*scrape the scales from a herring 刮去鲱鱼的鳞. => illus at fish 见fish插图.
2 [C] thing resembling this, esp a loose flake of diseased skin 鳞状物; （尤指皮肤的）鳞屑.
(a) (also esp Brit fur) chalky material deposited by hard water inside boilers, kettles, water-pipes, etc 水垢; 水 .
(b) tartar on teeth 牙垢.
4 (idm 习语) the scales fall from sb's `eyes someone suddenly realizes the truth after having been deceived 受骗後突然发觉真相; 发觉上当
*Then the scales fell from my eyes
*he had been lying all the time. 我恍然大悟
1 [Tn] remove the scales from (fish) 刮（鱼）鳞.
2 (phr v) scale off (sth) come off in flakes 呈片状剥落或脱落
*paint/plaster scaling off (a wall) （墙壁）脱落下来的油漆[灰泥].
(a) series of marks at regular distances for the purpose of measuring (eg on a ruler or thermometer) 标度; 刻度
*This ruler has one scale in centimetres and another in inches. 这把尺上有厘米的刻度和英寸的刻度.
(b) measuring instrument marked in this way 有刻度的量具.
2 [C] system of units for measuring 量度制; 进位制
*the `decimal scale 十进制.
3 [C] system of grading people or things according to how big, important, rich, etc, they are 等级; 级别
*a scale of wages, taxation 工资、税率的等级
* a person who is high on the social scale 社会地位高的人
* The salary scale goes from
8000 to 20000. 薪金级别为8000英镑至20000英镑.
4 [C] relation between the actual size of sth and the map, diagram, etc which represents it 比例; 比率
*a scale of ten kilometres to the centimetre, a scale of one to a million 一厘米代表十公里的比例、一比一百万的比例
* a large-scale map, ie one showing a relatively small area in detail 大比例的地图（较小范围的详图）
* Sheet maps use a much larger scale. 单张地图用的比例大得多.
* [attrib 作定语] a scale model, drawing, etc 成比例的模型、图等. =>illus at map 见map插图.
5 [U, C] relative size, extent, etc 规模; 程度; 范围
*entertain on a large scale, eg hold expensive parties with many guests 举办大规模的招待会
* The scale of his spending
50000 in a year amazed us all. 他开销之大--一年50000英镑--把我们都吓了一跳.
* We achieve economies of scale in production, ie Producing many items reduces the price of each one. 我们取得了大规模生产的经济效益.
6 [C] (music 音) series of notes arranged at fixed intervals in order of pitch, esp a series of eight starting on a keynote 音阶
*the scale of F, ie with F as the keynote F音阶
* practise scales on the piano 练习弹奏钢琴的连续音阶. Cf 参看 octave 1.
7 (idm 习语) to scale in a fixed proportion to the actual size 按比例
*draw a map of an area to scale 按比例绘制某地的地图.
v (phr v) ~ sth down/up reduce/increase sth 缩减[增加]某事物
*We are going to scale down the number of trees being felled. 我们要减少砍伐的树的数量.
* We've scaled up production to meet demand. 我们已经扩大了生产以满足需求.
1 [C] either of the two pans on a balance 天平盘.
2 scales [pl v] balance or instrument for weighing 天平; 磅秤
*a pair of scales 一台天平
* bathroom scales, ie for weighing oneself 浴室磅秤. =>illus 见插图.
3 (idm 习语) tip the balance/scale => tip2. tip/turn the scale(s) at sth (infml 口) weigh (a specified amount) 称得重量为（某量）
*The jockey turned the scales at
80 lb. 那赛马骑师体重为
v [In/pr] weigh (a specified amount) 称得重量为（某量）
*The boxer scaled
90 kilos. 那拳击手体重为
v [Tn] climb up (a wall, cliff, etc) 攀登, 爬（墙、悬崖等）.
Rømer is a temperature scale named after the Danish astronomer Ole Christensen Rømer, who proposed it in 1701.
1. We had money to cover small purchases, and, apart from wearing down-scale clothing, we did nothing in any of these settings to draw attention to ourselves; we merely shopped quietly in our accustomed manner. 我们身上带有支付小金额货物的钱，而且除了穿低挡衣服外，我们没有在上述任何环境里做过任何吸引他人来注意我们的事；我们仅仅是以我们习惯的方式在静静地购物。
2. They are preparing for war on a large scale. 他们正在大规模地准备战争。
3. Things can go wrong on a big scale, as a number of people recently discovered in Parramatta, a suburb of Sydney. 就像许多人最近在悉尼郊区帕拉马塔发现的那样，有时乱子会闹得很大。
4. And then on to the upper-scale stores and coffee shops during the lunch hour. 然后我们又到了几家高档商店，吃午饭的时候又去了几家咖啡馆。
5. Announced Thursday that it would sustain a net financial loss of unpredictable scale in its first financial year. 该公司星期四称在首个财政年度里公司将继续蒙受难以预料的净亏损。
6. A recent survey of the effects of noise revealed (surprisingly?) that dogs barking incessantly in the night rated the highest form of noise pollution on a scale ranging from 1 to 7. 最近一个有关噪音的作用的调查（令人吃惊地）指出，夜间连续不断的狗叫声，在一个从1级至7级刻度表上应列为最严重的噪间污染。
7. Soon the errors will have multiplied to the ten-foot scale, and so on up to the size of the globe. 很快这种偏差会增加到尺10英的范围，如此等等，一直到全球的范围。
8. James Cameron of the London News Chronicle, who was in China in 1954, reported even then the pace of building was unbelievable; how four new hospitals, six factories, and eleven full-scale blocks, had been laid out, started and completed in a matter 一九五四年访问中国的伦敦《新闻纪事报》记者詹姆斯·卡麦隆报导说，当时建设速度之快是难以令人置信的：四家医院，六座工厂和十一个完整的街区仅在数周之内就设计、建造并完工了。
9. Green and white taxis are a step down the scale, but still have meters. 绿白相间的就低一个档次，但也有计程器。
10. In one English class, the 11 students spend the last five minutes in an energetic exchange evaluating their class performance for the day on a 1-10 scale. 在一堂英语课上，11名学生用最后的五分钟展开激烈的讨论，依照1-10的评分标准相互评价他们当天的课堂表现。