1 (a) [C] beginning of a journey, an activity, a plan, a race, etc; process or act of starting 开始; 起始; 起程; 出发; 开端; 起始点
*make an early start (on a journey) 早早动身
* from start to finish 自始至终
* We won't finish the job today but we'll have made a start. 这工作我们今天是做不完的, 但可以开个头.
* I've written one page of my essay
*it's not much but it's a start. 我的论文写了一页, 这虽然不多, 但算是开了个头了.
* He knew from the start the idea was hopeless. 一开始他就知道这主意行不通.
(b) the start [sing] place where a race begins 起跑线
*runners lined up at the start 在起跑线上各就各位的运动员
* (fig 比喻) We're only at the start in our house-hunting. 我们找房子的事才刚刚开始.
2 [C] opportunity for, or help in, starting 开始的时机; 起推动作用的外力
*give sb a fresh start 给某人一个重新开始的机会
* The money gave him just the start he needed. 这笔钱正是他起步所需要的.
3 [U, sing] (amount of) advantage gained or allowed in starting; advantageous position 起始时的领先（程度）; 起始优势; 优势地位
*The smaller boys were given a start of
10 seconds in the race. 在赛跑时让年龄小的男生提早了10秒钟起跑.
* They didn't give me much/any start. 他们没给我什么[任何]优先权.
* He got a good start in business. 他在生意上起步时占了很大的优势.
4 [C usu sing 通常作单数] sudden quick movement of surprise, fear, etc （因惊奇、恐惧等）震动
*He sat up/woke up with a start. 他一惊, 猛然坐了起来[猛然惊醒过来].
* The news gave me quite a start, ie surprised me. 这消息让我吃了一惊.
5 (idm 习语) by/in fits and starts => fit4. a false start => false. for a `start (used in an argument 用于说理) as a first point 首先
*I'm not buying it I can't afford it for a start. 我不买--起码这个价钱我就付不起. get off to a good, bad, etc `start start well, badly, etc 开始时很好、不好等
*Their marriage got off to rather a shaky start. 他们的婚姻一开始就有些不稳固.
1 [I, Ip] ~ (out) begin a journey; leave; set off 出发; 起程; 动身
*We started at six. 我们是六点出发的.
* We must start (out) early. 我们必须早些动身.
2 [It, Tn, Tg] begin (sth/to do sth) 开始（某事[做某事]）; 着手
*It started to rain. 下起雨来了.
* start work at
9 am 上午9时开始工作
* He's just started a new job. 他刚开始一项新工作.
* start (ie begin using) a new tin of paint 新开了一罐颜料
* He started laughing. 他笑了起来.
3 [Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ (on) sth; ~ sb on sth (cause sb to) make a beginning on sth; (cause sb to) begin doing (a job, an activity, a piece of work, etc) （使某人）开始进行某事; （使某人）着手做（某事）
*start (on) one's journey home 起程回家
* Have you started (on) (ie begun to read or write) your next book yet? 你开始看（或写）下一本书了吗?
* It's time to get/time we got started on (ie began) the washing up. 我们该洗餐具了. =>Usage at begin 用法见begin.
4 (a) [I] (of an engine, etc) begin running （指发动机等）启动
*The car won't start. 这辆汽车发动不起来.
(b) [Tn] cause (a machine, etc) to start working 使（机器等）开始运转
*I can't start the car. 这辆汽车我发动不起来.
5 [Tn, Tn.pr, Cn.g] bring (sth) into existence; cause or enable (sb/sth) to begin or begin happening; establish; originate 产生; 使开始; 引发; 建立; 开创
*start a fire 点火
* He decided to start a newspaper. 他决定创办一份报纸.
* His uncle started him in business, ie helped him, eg by supplying money. 他的叔父帮他创办了事业（如资助他）.
* The news started me thinking. 我听了这消息便沉思起来.
* The smoke started her coughing. 烟呛得她直咳嗽.
6 [I, Ip] ~ (up) (fml 文)
(a) make a sudden movement or change of position (because of fear, surprise, pain, etc) （因恐惧、吃惊、痛苦等）突然移动、改换姿势或震动
*She started at the sound of my voice. 她听到我的声音, 吓了一跳.
(b) jump (up) suddenly 猛然跳起
*He started (up) from his seat. 他从座位上突然跳了起来.
7 [Ipr] (fml 文) move, rise or appear suddenly 突然活动、升起或出现
*Tears started to (ie suddenly came into) her eyes. 她的眼睛里突然涌出了泪水.
* His eyes almost startedout of his head, ie suddenly opened wide (in surprise, etc).他突然睁大了眼睛（因吃惊等）.
8 [Tn] (fml 文) drive (an animal) from a hiding-place into the open 将（动物）从隐藏处赶到空旷处
*start a hare 把野兔轰出来.
9 (idm 习语) keep/start the ball rolling => ball1. raise/start a hare => hare. start a `baby (infml 口 esp Brit) become pregnant 怀孕. start a `family begin to have children 开始生儿育女
*They want to start a family but can't afford it at the moment. 他们想生个孩子, 但暂时还养不起. start (sth) from `scratch begin (sth) from the very beginning without advantage or preparation, esp when building or developing sth 从头开始进行（某事）（尤指建设或开发）
*He lost all his money and had to start again completely from scratch. 他损失了所有的钱, 只好再从头做起. start off on the right/wrong `foot (with sb) (infml 口) begin sth (esp a relationship) in the right/wrong way 开始做某事物时正确[不正确]（尤指人际关系）
*The new student started off on the wrong foot with the teacher by answering back rudely. 那个新来的学生粗鲁地跟老师顶嘴, 一开始就把关系搞僵了. `start something (infml 口) begin a fight, an argument, trouble, etc 惹事; 惹麻烦; 闯祸
*You shouldn't have spoken to him like that you've really started something now. 你不该那样跟他说话--这下你可闯了祸了. to `start with
(a) in the first place; as the first point 第一; 首先
*To start with we haven't enough money, and secondly we're too busy. 一来我们的钱不够, 二来我们没时间.
(b) at the beginning; initially 起初; 开始时
*The club had only six members to start with. 这个俱乐部最初只有六个成员.
10 (phr v) start back
(a) begin to return 动身返回
*Isn't it time we started back? It's getting dark. 咱们该回去了吧? 天快黑了.
(b) jump or step back suddenly (in fear, shock, surprise, etc) （因恐惧、惊吓、吃惊等）往後一跳, 突然向後退. start for... leave one place to go to another 动身前往
*What time do you start for work? 你几点钟去上班?
* Let's start for home. 咱们动身回家吧. start in on sb (for sth) (infml 口) begin to criticize, scold or shout at sb 对某人批评、责骂或嚷叫起来
*He started in on us again for poor work. 因为我们干得不好, 他又数落开了. start in to do sth/on sth/on doing sth (infml 口) begin to do sth 开始做某事
*We started in to discuss/on a discussion of/on discussing the idea. 我们开始讨论那个意见. start off begin to move 开始活动
*The horse started off at a steady trot. 那匹马快步稳健地跑了起来. start (sb) off (on sth) (cause sb to) begin working on, doing, saying, etc sth （使某人）开始（进行某事）
*It's impossible to stop him talking once he starts off. 他一打开话匣子就停不住了.
* What started him off on this crazy idea? 他这个荒唐的主意是哪儿来的?
* Don't start her off on one of her boring stories. 不要惹她说她那些乏味的故事. start out (on sth); start out (to do sth)
(a) begin a journey 出发; 起程; 动身
*start out on a 20-mile walk 开始走一段20英里长的路程
* What time did you start out? 你是几点钟动身的?
(b) (infml 口) take the first steps; intend when starting 迈开最初的几步; 开始时打算; 本来想要
*start out in business 开始做生意
* start out on a new career 在新的事业上起步
* start out to write/with the intention of writing a novel 动笔[想]写一部长篇小说. start over (US) begin again 重新开始
*She wasn't satisfied with our work and made us start (all) over. 她不满意我们的工作, 让我们（全部）返工. start (sth) up(cause sth to) begin or begin working, running, happening,etc （使某事物）启动, 开始
*The engine started up suddenly. 发动机突然发动起来了.
* start up a new bus company 建立新的公共汽车公司
* What started the argument up? 这场争论是由什么引起的?
* We couldn't start the car up. 那辆汽车我们发动不起来. start (sb) up (in sth) (cause sb to) begin a career, working life, etc （使某人）开始从事事业、工作等
*start up in business 在事业上起步
* He started his daughter up in the trade. 他让女儿从事这一行业.