n.乱写,刮擦声,抓痕,擦伤 vt.乱涂,勾抹掉,擦,刮,搔,抓,挖出 vi.发刮擦声,搔,抓 adj.打草稿用的,凑合的
名词:scratcher 动词过去式:scratched 过去分词:scratched 现在分词:scratching 第三人称单数:scratches
1 (a) I, Ipr, Tn] make marks on or in (a surface) with a sharp tool, nails, claws, etc; make a shallow wound in (the skin) in this way 刮, 划, 抓（物体表面或皮肤）（呈现伤或痕）
*That cat scratches. 那只猫爱用爪子乱抓.
* The dog is scratching at the door. 狗正在抓门.
* The knife has scratched the table. 刀子把桌子划出了道子.
* She won't scratch you. 她不会把你抓伤的.
(b) [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] make (sth) by scratching 抓、划或刮等而成（某状态）
*scratch a line on a surface 在物体表面划出一条线
* scratch (out) a hole in the soil 在土里挖（出）一个洞
* He'd scratched his name in the bark of the tree. 他把名字刻在树皮上了.2 [I, Tn] scrape or rub (the skin), esp with the nails to relieve itching 挠或擦（皮肤）; （尤指）搔痒
*Stop scratching (yourself). 别再搔痒了.
* Scratching the rash will make it worse. 丘疹越挠越坏.
3 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb/sth (on sth) get (oneself or a part of the body) scratched by accident 使（自己或身体某部）意外划伤
*She scratched herself badly while pruning the roses. 她修剪玫瑰花时把自己划伤了一大片.
* He's scratched his hand on a nail. 他的手让钉子刮破了.
4 [I] make an unpleasant scraping sound 发出刮或擦的声音
*My pen scratches. 我的钢笔在写字时发出刮纸声.
5 [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ (sb/sth) (from sth) withdraw (sb/sth) from competing in a race, competition, etc （使自己[某物]）退出比赛
*I had to scratch (from the marathon) because of a bad cold. 我患了重感冒, 只好退出马拉松比赛.
* The horse had to be scratched (from its first race). 只好把那匹马撤出了（第一场比赛）.
6 (idm 习语) scratch one's `head think hard in a puzzled way about what to do or say 挠头; 伤脑筋; 费思量
*We've been scratching our heads for a solution to the problem. 我们一直苦苦思索, 想找到解决这一问题的方法. scratch the `surface (of sth) treat a subject or deal with a problem without being thorough 对待或处理一问题不深入彻底
*This essay is so short that it can only scratch the surface of the topic. 这篇文章很短, 只能对这一问题作肤浅的探讨.
* The famine is so bad, aid can only scratch the surface. 饥荒十分严重, 援助也只是杯水车薪. ,you scratch `my back and ,I'll scratch `yours (saying 谚) you help me and I'll help you, esp in an unfair way 你给我搔背, 我也给你搔背（你帮我, 我也帮你, 尤指不正当的事）
*The contract went to a friend of the chief accountant
*it's (a case of) you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours. 承包合同批给了总会计师的朋友, （可谓）各有好处、串通一气.
7 (phr v) scratch about (for sth) search here and there using sth sharp, one's nails etc （用尖物、指甲等）各处抓挠寻找
*The monkey scratched about in its mate's fur for fleas. 那只猴子在另一只猴子身上找跳蚤. scratch sth away, off, etc remove sth by scratching 刮去某物
*scratch the paint away from the lock 把锁头上的油漆刮掉.
* scratch the rust off the wheel 把轮子上的锈刮掉
* I'll scratch your eyes out! 我要把你的眼睛挖出来! scratch sth out (of sth) erase sth by scratching with sth sharp 用尖物划掉某物
*Her name had been scratched out of the list. 她的名字已从名单上划掉了. scratch sth together/up = scrape sth together/up (scrape1). scratch sth up get sth out of the ground by scratching 从地上刮出某物
*The dog scratched up a bone in the garden. 那条狗在花园里刨出一根骨头.
1 [C] mark, cut, injury or sound made by scratching (scratch1 1a) 刮、划、抓等的痕、伤或声音
*scratches on old records 旧唱片发出的沙沙声
* Her hands were covered with scratches from thethorns. 她手上有很多棘刺划的伤痕.
* It's only a scratch,ie a very slight injury. 那只是一点擦伤.
* He escaped without a scratch, ie completely unhurt. 他安全逃脱了.
2 [sing] act or period of scratching (scratch1 2) 挠; 搔; 搔痒
*The dog gave itself a good scratch. 那条狗使劲地搔痒一番.
3 (a) [C] line from which competitors start in a race when they receive no handicap （无让步条件的）起跑线.
(b) [U] status of a player who receives no handicap 无让步条件的参赛者的资格或身分
*play to scratch, ie without any handicap 平权比赛
* [attrib 作定语] a scratch player, golfer, etc 无让步条件比赛的参加者、高尔夫球员等.
4 (idm 习语) (start sth) from `scratch (begin sth) at the beginning, not using any work that was done before 从没有任何基础开始; 从零开始
*There were so many spelling mistakes, I had to write the letter out again from scratch. 这封信的拼写错误太多, 我得重写一遍. (be/come) up to `scratch; (bring sb/sth) up to `scratch as good as sb/sth should be; satisfactory （使某人[某事物]）合格; 令人满意
*Is her schoolwork up to scratch? 她的功课行吗?
* We'll have to bring the house up to scratch before we sell it. 我们得把这所房子维修一下再出售.
adj [attrib 作定语] made up with whatever people or materials are available 用现有的人或材料拼凑的
*a scratch meal, team, crew 现凑成的饭菜、队、工作人员. scratchy adj (-ier, -iest)
1 making the skin feel itchy or irritated 使皮肤发痒的; 刺激皮肤的
*scratchy clothes, wool, etc 使皮肤发痒的衣物、毛织品等.
2 (of a record) making clicks and hisses when played because of scratches on its surface （指唱片）发沙沙声的.
3 (of a pen) making a scratching sound （指钢笔）发刮纸声的.
4 (of writing or drawings) untidy or carelessly done （指文字或图画）潦草的.
1. But its economy is stuck in recession and it barely has the money to even scratch the surface of the problem. 但是由于其经济陷于低迷，几乎没有资金来着手解决最基本的问题。
2. They are kept up to scratch with intensive and regular training. 他们定期接受强化训练来保持达标。
3. I´m not going, Please scratch my name off the list. 我不去了。请把我的名字从名单上划掉。