n.地面,土地,战场,场所,范围 adj.土地的,地面上的 vt.把...放在地上,使搁浅,打基础 vi.具有基础,着陆,搁浅 vbl.grind的过去式
动词过去式:grounded 过去分词:grounded 现在分词:grounding 第三人称单数:grounds
1 the ground [sing] solid surface of the earth (esp contrasted with the air above) 地面（尤指与空中相对）
*sit on the ground 坐在地上
* He slipped off the ladder and fell to the ground. 他从梯子上滑了下来摔在地上.
* The aircraft hadn't enough power to get off the ground, ie take off. 那架飞机的升空动力不足.
* [attrib 作定语] at ground level 在地平面.
(a) area or distance on the earth's surface; land 地面上的区域或距离; 土地
*have more ground than one's next-door neighbour 土地比邻居的多
* buy up some ground for building on 购置地皮以供建筑之用
* The land near the border is disputed ground. 靠近边界的土地是有争议的地区.
* measure the ground between two points 测量地面上两点间的距离.
(b) soil; earth 泥土; 土地
*solid, marshy, stony, etc ground 坚硬的土地、沼泽地、多石的地. =>Usage at earth 用法见earth.
3 (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词)
(a) [C] piece of land (often with associated buildings) used for a particular purpose 场地
*a `football, `cricket, `sports, recre`ation ground
* a pa`rade-ground
* a `playground
* The cheers of the fans echoed round the ground as the team appeared. 球队刚一上场, 球迷的欢呼声立即响遍全场.
(b) grounds [pl] large area of land or sea used for the stated purpose （作某用途的）地域或水域
*`fishing, `hunting grounds 渔场、猎场.
4 grounds [pl] land or gardens round a building, often enclosed with walls, hedges or fences 建筑物四周的土地或花园（常用墙或篱围起）; 庭园
*The house has extensive grounds. 这房子四周的庭园宽阔.
* the grounds of Buckingham Palace 白金汉宫的花园.
5 [U] (fig 比喻) area of interest, discussion, etc 兴趣、讨论等的范围
*They managed to cover quite a lot of ground in a short programme. 他们设法在一个短小的节目中包罗了多方面的内容.
* go over the same ground, ie discuss a familiar topic 讨论熟悉的题目
* trying to find some common ground between the two sides, ie points on which they can agree 努力找出双方一致之处
* You're on dangerous ground when you criticize his daughter, ie because he will react angrily. 你批评他的女儿就要惹出是非了（因为他生气）.
6 [C esp pl 尤作复数] ~ (for sth/doing sth/to do sth) reason(s) or justification for saying, doing or believing sth 说、做或相信某事的原因或理由
*You have no grounds for complaint/for complaining. 你没有抱怨的理由.
* If you continue to behave like this you will give them/provide them with grounds for dismissing you. 你照这样下去就让他们找到辞退你的理由了.
* Desertion is a ground (ie legally sufficient reason) for divorce. 被配偶遗弃是离婚的充足理由.
* They had no grounds to arrest him. 他们没有理由逮捕他.
* I had to retire on medical grounds/on the grounds of ill health, ie because I was ill. 我因健康的缘故不得已才退休了.
* Her claim was disallowed on the ground(s) that she had not paid her premium. 她要求赔款遭到拒绝, 原因是她事先没有交纳保险费.
* On what grounds do you make that accusation? 你根据什么提出那项控告? =>Usage at reason1 用法见reason1.
7 [C] surface on which a design is painted, printed, cut, etc; undecorated part; background （印刷、雕刻等的）版面, 底子; 背景
*a design of pink roses on a white ground 白底粉红玫瑰的花样.
8 [U] bottom of the sea 海底
*The ship touched ground a few yards from the shore. 船在距海岸几码处搁浅了.
9 grounds [pl] ground coffee beans after they have been brewed 烘烤後再磨碎的咖啡豆.
10 (idm 习语) above `ground above the surface of the earth 地面之上; 地上. be on firm ground => firm1. below `ground beneath the surface of the earth 地面之下; 地下
*Their missile silos are below ground. 他们的导弹发射井在地下. break fresh/new `ground introduce or discover a new method, system, etc; innovate 引进或发现新方法、制度等; 改革; 革新. cut the ground from under sb's `feet spoil sb's plan, argument, defence, etc by anticipating it （预先采取措施）破坏某人的计画、论据、答辩等; 挖墙脚; 拆台. forbidden ground => forbid. gain/make up ground (on sb/sth) get gradually closer to sb/sth going in the same direction as oneself 逐渐追及某人[某事物]
*The police car was gaining ground on the robbers. 警车逐渐追上劫匪.
* (fig 比喻) How can we make up ground on our competitors? 我们怎样才能赶上竞争对手? get off the `ground (of activities, enterprises, etc) make a successful start （指活动、事业等）顺利开始. give/lose `ground (to sb/sth)
(a) retreat 撤退.
(b) get gradually less far ahead of sb/sth going in the same direction 被追上来的某人[某事物]逐渐赶上
*The leader is losing ground as the rest of the runners accelerate. 领先者在其余赛跑者加速时就逐渐失去了优势.
* (fig 比喻) The gas lamp gradually lost ground to (ie was replaced by) electric lighting. 电灯逐步取代了煤气灯. go/run to earth/ground => earth. have/keep a/one's ear to the ground => ear1. have, etc one's/both feet on the ground => foot1. hold/keep/stand one's `ground maintain one's claim, intention, argument, etc; not yield or give way 坚持主张、意图、论点等; 不屈服; 不让步. keep both/one's feet on the ground => foot. on the `ground amongst ordinary people 在普通人中
*There's a lot of support for our policies on the ground. 我们的政策在一般群众中得到普遍拥护. prepare the ground (for sth) make the development of sth possible or easier 使某事物能够或容易发展
*Early experiments with military rockets prepared the ground for space travel. 早年对军用火箭进行的实验为发展航天技术奠定了基础. run sb/sth into the `ground (infml 口) wear sb/sth out completely; exhaust sb/sth 使某人精疲力竭; 耗尽某物
13 hours a day she is running herself into the ground. 她一天工作13小时, 眼看就要累垮了.
* Unable to afford a new car, we had to run the old one into the ground. 我们因为买不起新汽车, 只得把那辆旧的用坏为止. shift/change one's `ground change the basis of one's argument, claim, etc 改变论点、主张等的依据; 改变观点
*Just when you think you've proved him wrong, he shifts his ground. 你刚以为你已经证实他错了, 他就改变观点了. suit sb down to the ground => suit2. thinon the ground => thin. to the `ground (of destroying,demolishing, etc) completely; utterly （指毁坏、拆除等）全部, 完全
*The building was burned to the ground. 该建筑物已全部焚毁.
1 (a) [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ (sth) (in/on sth) (of a ship) touch the sea bottom; cause (a ship) to do this （指船）触海底, 搁浅; 使（船）触海底、搁浅
*Our ship grounded in shallow water/on a sandbank. 我们的船在浅水中[在沙滩上]搁浅.
(b) [Tn esp passive 尤用于被动语态] require or force (an aircraft) to stay on the ground 要求或迫使（飞行器）停留在地面; 停飞
*All aircraft at London Airport were grounded by fog today. 因今天有雾, 伦敦机场的所有飞机都被迫停飞.
2 [Tn] (esp US) = earth v.
3 (idm 习语) ground arms (of soldiers) lay (esp rifles) on the ground （指士兵）将（尤指步枪）放在地上; 放下武器.
4 (phr v) ground sb in sth give sb good teaching or basic training in (a subject) （在某学科上）给某人良好的教导或基本训练
*She grounded her pupils well in arithmetic. 她给自己的学生打下良好的算术基础. ground sth on sth base beliefs, etc on sth 将信仰等建立于某事物的基础上
*ground one's arguments on facts 以事实为根据来立论
* a well-grounded theory 有坚实基础的理论.
pt, pp of grind
*ground rice, ie reduced to a fine powder 米粉
* ground glass, ie made non-transparent by rubbing the surface to make it rough 毛玻璃.
1. By building the city both deep into the ground and high above it, there would be room for far more people and everything else than there is in today´s two dimensional city. 由于这种城市既建在地下深处，又造在地上高空中，所以能容纳的人和其它各种东西会比今天的平面城市多得多。
2. With the hand held high in the air, hold the string so that the weight nearly touches the ground. 把手高高举在空中握住绳子，让重物几乎接触地面。
3. When it did so, it sent sparks down to the ground and these immediately started a fire. 当它这样做时，把火花送到了地面，这些火花立刻引起了一场大火。
4. Well, I measured the distance of ground, and calculated how deep it was to be dug, how broad, and how the earth to be thrown out. 接着，我测量了一下距离，计算了一下该挖多深、多宽，以及怎样把土运走。
5. Water is in rock deep under the ground, in natural holding areas -- in storage. 水深藏于地底下的岩层里、在天然蓄水区里 -- 水就储存在那里。
6. What remained of the life he had made was blown to bits though his home was more than a mile from ground zero. 尽管他家与原子弹爆炸中心相距1英里，但是他所营造的生活中的一切还是被炸成了碎片。
7. When snow or ice was on the ground, it was impossible for him to walk, even with help. 当路上覆盖冰雪时，即使有人搀扶，他也难以行走。
8. The flour was ground from barley. 这面粉是用大麦碾成的。
9. This wet ground is not firm enough to walk on. 这块湿地不够坚实, 不能在上面走.
10. The ground is always frozen in winter. 冬天地面总是冰冻的.